Memphis is the first capital for united Egypt. It is considered a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1979. It lies on the west bank of the Nile River.
The history of this great city:
According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Memphis city was established by King Menes, the first king of untied Egypt, to be the capital of ancient Egypt in 3100 B.C. It remained the capital of ancient Egypt from the first dynasty to the sixth dynasty.
Now, Memphis is located in Mit Rahinah – Al Badrashin in Giza Governorate. King Menes decided to build this city in this place to allow him to control Upper and Lower Egypt.
Memphis city had a great position in ancient Egypt, as it was the center for worshipping the sacred bull, Apis.
Also, this city was the center for the Memphis triad (Ptah, his wife Sekhmet, and their son Nefertem).
Memphis site distinguishes by housing the Memphis Museum, displaying the statue of Queen Hatshepsut, the second largest statue of the Sphinx after the one in Giza plateau, and the great statue of King Ramesses II. This statue of Ramesses II was discovered beside the statue of King Ramesses II, exhibited now in The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM).
The names of Memphis
1 – The first name for this site was (Inebu-hedj), meaning the white walls, referring to the fortress of King Menes constructed by the white limestone.
2 – The second name was (Men-nefer), meaning enduring and beautiful or magnificent monument referring to the pyramid of King Pepi I from the sixth dynasty.
3 – Then this name was changed in the Greco-Roman period to be Memphis.
4 – Hence, Manf in Arabic.
5 – But now this place is known with the name (Mit Rahinah). It is another ancient Egyptian name, meaning rams road.
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