Saqqara is one of the most important cemeteries in Memphis Necropolis. It contains thousands of tombs (royal pyramids and mastabas). Among these tombs, there is the step pyramid of king Djoser, the oldest pyramid in the ancient Egyptian civilization.
Let’s take a tour in Saqqara Necropolis
1 – King Djoser Complex and The step pyramid
This complex belongs to King Djoser from the third dynasty, the old kingdom. The vizier, Imhotep, designed this complex to be the first complete stone building complex in the ancient Egyptian civilization.
This complex contains the burial tomb of King Djoser, the step pyramid. The step pyramid is the most conspicuous sightseeing of Saqqara. It stands 60 meters high and was constructed with six mastabas, so the researchers believe that this pyramid refers to the architectural development of the royal mastabas in the first and second dynasties.
2 – Unas pyramid
Unas pyramid is owned by King Unas, the last king in the fifth dynasty. It lies southwest of the King Djoser complex. This pyramid is famous for containing the oldest Egyptian religious texts, the pyramid texts. It exists on the wall of the tomb chamber and is written in hieroglyphs with blue pigment. These texts aim to protect the dead in the afterlife.
3 – Teti pyramid
Teti pyramid belongs to King Teti, the first king in the sixth dynasty. This pyramid is located on the northeast of the King Djoser complex.
4 – High Officials Tombs
Saqqara houses several tombs or mastabas belonging to the high officials from the old kingdom and the new kingdom. The old kingdom tombs are as Mereruka, Kagemni, Ptah-Hotep family, and Mehu. The new kingdom tombs are as Horemhep, Maya, Tia, and Merynieth.
These tombs distinguish by containing depictions showing the daily life activities of the ancient Egyptians. These tombs refer to the high position of those persons and the increasing of their power at that time.
5 – Serapeum of the sacred bull Apis
The Serapeum is the cemetery of the sacred animal of the god Ptah, the Apis bulls. It contains rock-cut underground burial chambers to bury the mummied bulls.
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